SLEEP™ Ingredients Research

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A Randomized Double-Blind Parallel-Group Placebo-Controlled Trial of Extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) in Healthy AdultsNell H, Siebert M, Chellan P et al. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of Extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) in healthy adults. J Altern Complement Med. 2013. 19(11):898-904      
A Televised Web-Based Randomised Trial of an Herbal Remedy (Valerian) for InsomniaOxman A, Flottorp S, Håvelsrud K et al. A televised, web-based randomised trial of an herbal remedy (valerian) for insomnia. PLoS One. 2007;2(10):e1040.
Acute Effects of Sceletium tortuosum Zembrin a Dual 5-HT Reuptake and PDE4 Inhibitor in the Human Amygdala and its Connection to the HypothalamusTerburg D, Syal S, Rosenberger L et al. Acute effects of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), a dual 5-HT reuptake and PDE4 inhibitor, in the human amygdala and its connection to the hypothalamus. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38(13):2708-16.  
Aqueous extract of valerian reduces latency to fall asleep in manLeathwood P, Chauffard F. Aqueous extract of valerian reduces latency to fall asleep in man. Planta Med .1985. 2:144-148.
Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) improves sleep quality in manLeathwood P, Chauffard F, Heck E et al. Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) improves sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982. 17(1):65-71.
Biological role of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper A ReviewAhmad, N, Fazal H, Abbasi B et al:  Khan, M.A. (2012) Biological Role of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper): A Review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2010, 5:1945-1953.  
Does Valerian Improve Sleepiness and Symptom Severity in People with Restless Leg SyndromeCuellar N, Ratcliffe S. Does valerian improve sleepiness and symptom severity in people with restless legs syndrome? Alt Ther. 2009. 15(2):22-28.
Effect of non-alcoholic beer on Subjective Sleep Quality in a university stressed populationFranco L, Bravo R, Galán C et al. Effect of non-alcoholic beer on Subjective Sleep Quality in a university stressed population. Acta Physiologica Hungarica. 2014. 101(3):353–36
Effect of tart cherry juice Prunus cerasus on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep qualityHowatson G, Bell P, Tallent J et al. Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality. Eur J Nutr. 2012. 51(8):909-1  
Effects of a hops Humulus lupulus L. dry extract supplement on self-reported depression anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover pilot studyKyrou I, Christou A, Panagiotakos D et al. Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study. Hormones (Athens). 2017. 16(2):171-180
Effects of Valeriana edulis on sleep difficulties in children with intellectual deficitsFrancis A, Dempster R. Effect of valerian, Valeriana edulis, on sleep difficulties in children with intellectual deficits: randomised trial. Phytomedicine. 2002 May;9(4):273-9.
Efficacy of prolonged release melatonin in insomnia patients aged 55 to 80 years Quality of sleep and next day alertness outcomesWade A, Ford I, Crawford G et al. Efficacy of prolonged release melatonin in insomnia patients aged 55-80 years: quality of sleep and next-day alertness outcomes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007. 23(10):2597-605.
Efficacy of single dose antihistamine vs. single dose valerian-hops in subjective sleep measures among war refugees a comparison trialGammoh O, Al-Smadi A, Mukattash T et al. Efficacy of single dose antihistamine vs. single dose valerian-hops in subjective sleep measures among war refugees: a comparison trial. Arch Clin Psychiatry. 2017;44(2):35
Enhancing the bioavailability of resveratrol by combining it with piperineJohnson J, Nihal M, Siddiqui I et al: Enhancing the bioavailability of resveratrol by combining it with piperine. Mol Nutri Food Res. 2011, 55(8): 1169–1176  
, Melatonin advances the circadian timing of EEG sleep and directly facilitates sleep without altering its duration in extended sleep opportunities in humans.Rajaratnam S, Middleton B, Stone B et al. Melatonin advances the circadian timing of EEG sleep and directly facilitates sleep without altering its duration in extended sleep opportunities in humans. J Physiol. 2004;561(1):339-51.
Natural products of relevance in the prevention and supportive treatment of depressionMuszyńska B, Łojewski M, Rojowski J et al. Natural products of relevance in the prevention and supportive treatment of depression. [Article in English, Polish] Psychiatr Pol. 2015. 49(3):435-53
Nocturnal 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin Excretion in Insomnia and Its Relation to the Response to Melatonin Replacement TherapyLeger D, Laudon M, Zisapel N. Nocturnal 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion in insomnia and its relation to the response to melatonin replacement therapy. Am J Med. 2004. 15;116(2):9  
Pharmacodynamic effects of valerian and hops extract combination Ze 91019 on the quantitative-topographical EEG in healthy volunteersVonderheid-Guth B, Todorova A, Brattström A et al. Pharmacodynamic effects of valerian and hops extract combination (Ze 91019) on the quantitative-topographical EEG in healthy volunteers. Eur J Med Res. 2000. 19;5(4):139-44.
Pharmacological actions of the South African medicinal and functional food plant Sceletium tortuosum and its principal alkaloidsHarvey A, Young L, Viljoen A et al. Pharmacological actions of the South African medicinal and functional food plant Sceletium tortuosum and its principal alkaloids. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011. 137(3):1124-9.
Piperine Enhances the Bioavailability of the Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin 3 gallate in MiceLambert J, Hong J, Kim D et al: Piperine enhances the bioavailability of the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice.  J Nutrition. 2004. 134(8); 1948-52.  
Psychoactive constituents of the genus Sceletium NEBr and other Mesembryanthemaceae A reviewSmith M, Crouch N, Gericke N et al. Psychoactive constituents of the genus Sceletium N.E.Br. and other Mesembryanthemaceae: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996. 50(3):119-30
Sceletium A review updateGericke N, Viljoen A. Sceletium-a review update. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008. 119(3):653-63
The Effect of Valerian Extract on Sleep Polygraphy in Poor Sleepers A Pilot StudySchulz H1, Stolz C, Müller J. The effect of valerian extract on sleep polygraphy in poor sleepers: a pilot study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1994. 27(4):147-51.
The Effectiveness of Prolonged Release Melatonin in Primary Insomnia Patients with a Regular Sleep Wake CycleChung S, Youn S. Park B et al. The Effectiveness of Prolonged-Release Melatonin in Primary Insomnia Patients with a Regular Sleep-Wake Cycle. Sleep Medicine Research. 2016. 7:16-20  
The Efficacy and Safety of Exogenous Melatonin for Primary Sleep DisordersBuscemi N, Vandermeer B, Hooton N, et al. The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders. A meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(12):1151–1158  
The Sedative Effect of Non-Alcoholic Beer in Healthy Female NursesFranco L, Sánchez C, Bravo R et al. The sedative effect of non-alcoholic beer in healthy female nurses. PLoS One. 2012. 7(7):e37290
, Treating primary insomniaSalter S, Brownie S. Treating primary insomnia. The efficacy of valerian and hops. Australian Family Physician. 2010. 39(6):433-437.  
ValerianHadley S, Petry J. Valerian. Am Fam Physician. 2003.15;67(8):1755-8
Valerian for Sleep A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisBent S, Padula A, Moore D et al. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006. 119(12):1005–1012.
Valerian for Sleep A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisStevinson C, Ernst E. Valerian for insomnia. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Sleep Med. 2000. 1: 91-99.
Valerian-Hops Combination and Diphenhydramine for Treating Insomnia A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical TrialMorin C, Koetter U, Bastien C et al. Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sleep. 2005. 28(11):1465-71.